Principles, Standards and Implementation

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Standards

Introduction ISO (International Organization for Standardization) IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) EN Harmonized European Standards ISO and EN Standards (Type A) ISO and EN Standards (Type B)
ISO and EN Standards (Type C) IEC and EN Standards US Standards Canada Standards Australia Standards
US Standards

OSHA Standards

Where possible, OSHA promulgates national consensus standards or established Federal standards as safety standards. The mandatory provisions (e.g., the word shall implies mandatory) of the standards, incorporated by reference, have the same force and effects as the standards listed in Part 1910. For example, the national consensus standard NFPA 70 is listed as a reference document in Appendix A of Subpart S-Electrical of Part 1910 of 29 CFR. NFPA 70 is a voluntary standard, which was developed by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). NFPA 70 is also known as the National Electric Code (NEC). By incorporation, all the mandatory requirements in the NEC are mandatory by OSHA.

The following is a list of some of the OSHA standards relevant to machinery safety,


1910 Subpart O Machinery and Machine Guarding
1910.211 Definitions
1910.212 General requirements for all machines
1910.213 Woodworking machinery requirements
1910.214 Cooperage machinery
1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery
1910.216 Mills and calendars in the rubber and plastics industries
1910.217 Mechanical power presses
1910.217 App A Mandatory requirements for certification/validation of safety systems for presence sensing device initiation of mechanical power presses
1910.217 App B Nonmandatory guidelines for certification/validation of safety systems for presence sensing device initiation of mechanical power presses
1910.217 App C Mandatory requirements for OSHA recognition of third-party validation organizations for the PSDI standard
1910.217 App D Nonmandatory supplementary information
1910.218 Forging machines
1910.219 Mechanical power
1910.255 Resistance welding
1910 Subpart R Special Industries
1910.261 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills
1910.262 Textiles
1910.263 Bakery equipment
1910.264 Laundry machinery and operations
1910.265 Sawmills
1910.266 Logging operations

ANSI Standards

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) serves as the administrator and coordinator of the United States private sector voluntary standardization system. It is a private, nonprofit, membership organization supported by a diverse constituency of private and public sector organizations.

ANSI, itself, does not develop standards; it facilitates the development of standards by establishing consensus among qualified groups. ANSI also ensures that the guiding principles of consensus, due process and openness are followed by the qualified groups. Below is a partial list of industrial safety standards that can be obtained by contacting ANSI.

These standards are categorized as either application standards or construction standards. Application standards define how to apply a safeguarding to machinery. Examples include ANSI B11.1, which provides information on the use of machine guarding on power presses, and ANSI/RIA R15.06, which outlines safeguarding use for robot guarding.


National Fire Protection Association

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) was organized in 1896. Its mission is to reduce the burden of fire on the quality of life by advocating scientifically based consensus codes and standards, research and education for fire and related safety issues. The NFPA sponsors many standards to help accomplish its mission. Two very important standards related to industrial safety and safe-guarding are the National Electric Code (NEC) and Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery.

The National Fire Protection Association has acted as sponsor of the NEC since 1911. The original code document was developed in 1897 as a result of the united efforts of various insurance, electrical, architectural, and allied interests. The NEC has since been updated numerous times; it is revised about every three years. Article 670 of the NEC covers some details on industrial machinery and refers the reader to the Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery, NFPA 79.

NFPA 79 applies to electrical/electronic equipment, apparatus, or systems of industrial machines operating from a nominal voltage of 600 volts or less. The purpose of NFPA 79 is to provide detailed information for the application of electrical/electronic equipment, apparatus, or systems supplied as part of industrial machines that will promote safety to life and property. NFPA 79, which was officially adopted by ANSI in 1962, is very similar in content to the standard IEC 60204-1.

Machines, which are not covered by specific OSHA standards, are required to be free of recognized hazards which may cause death or serious injuries. These machines must be designed and maintained to meet or exceed the requirements of applicable industry standards. NFPA 79 is a standard that would apply to machines not specifically covered by OSHA standards.


ANSI/NFPA 70
US National Electrical Code

ANSI/NFPA 70E
Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces

ANSI/NFPA 79
Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery


Association for Manufacturing Technology

ANSI B11.1
Machine Tools - Mechanical Power Presses - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.2
Machine Tools - Hydraulic Power Presses, Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.3
Power Press Brakes, Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.4
Machine Tools - Shears - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.5
Machine Tools - Iron Workers - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.6
Lathes, Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.7
Machine Tools - Cold Headers and Cold Formers, Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.8
Drilling, Milling, and Boring Machines, Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.9
Grinding Machines, Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.10
Metal Sawing Machines, Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.11
Gear Cutting Machines, Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.12
Machine Tools - Roll-Forming and Roll-Bending Machines - Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.13
Machine Tools - Single- and Multiple-Spindle Automatic Bar and Chucking Machines - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care and Use

ANSI B11.14
Machine Tools - Coil-Slitting Machines Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use – Withdrawn and rolled into B11.18

ANSI B11.15
Pipe, Tube, and Shape Bending Machines, Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use


ANSI B11.16
Metal Powder Compacting Presses, Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.17
Machine Tools - Horizontal Hydraulic Extrusion Presses - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.18
Machine Tools - Machines and Machinery Systems for Processing Strip, Sheet, or Plate from Coiled Configuration - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.19
Machine Tools - Safeguarding When Referenced by Other B11 Machine Tool Safety Standards-Performance Criteria for the Design, Construction, Care and Operation

ANSI B11.20
Machine Tools - Manufacturing Systems/Cells – Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.21
Machine Tools - Machine Tools Using Lasers for Processing Materials - Safety Requirements for Design, Construction, Care, and Use

ANSI B11.TR3
Risk assessment and risk reduction – A guide to estimate, evaluate and reduce risks associated with machine tools

ANSI B11.TR4
This technical report covers the application of programmable controllers to safety applications.

ANSI B11.TR6
This technical report, currently in development, will provide circuit examples of safety functions to accommodate various levels of risk Reduction.

ANSI ISO 12100
Safety of machinery. Basic concepts, general principles for design. Pts -1 and -2
The standard ISO 12100 has been adopted in the US by AMT as an identical ANSI standard. ISO 12100 is a globally applicable top level basic principles standard that forms the framework for most of the ISO, IEC and EN machinery safety standards. It provides a risk assessment approach as opposed to a prescriptive and restrictive approach. The aim is to avoid cost and trade barrier problems caused by a multiplicity of different national standards covering the same subject in different ways.


Robot Industries Association
ANSI RIA R15.06
Safety Requirements for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems


ANSI RIA R15.06
Safety Requirements for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems


Packaging Machinery Manufacturer’s Institute

ANSI PMMI B155.1
Safety Requirements for Packaging Machinery and Packaging-Related Converting Machinery
The packaging standard was recently revised to incorporate risk assessment and risk reduction.


American Society of Safety Engineers

Z224.1
Control of Hazardous Energy, Lockout/Tag out and Alternative Methods
This standard is similar to OSHA 1910.147. It provides a method (risk assessment) to determine the appropriate alternative method when energy cannot be locked out.


Society of Plastics Industry

ANSI B151.1
Horizontal Injection Molding Machines – Safety Requirements for Manufacture, Care and Use

ANSI B151.15
Extrusion Blow Molding Machines – Safety Requirements

ANSI B151.21
Injection Blow Molding Machines - Safety Requirements

ANSI B151.26
Plastics Machinery - Dynamic Reaction - Injection Molding Machines - Safety Requirements for the Manufacture, Care and Use

ANSI B151.27
Plastics Machinery - Robots used with Horizontal Injection Molding Machines - Safety Requirements for the Integration, Care and Use

ANSI B151.28
Plastics Machinery - Machines to Cut, Slit, of Buff Plastic Foams - Safety Requirements for the Manufacture, Care and Use