This section provides a list of some of the typical international and national standards that are relevant to machinery safety. It is not intended to form an exhaustive list but rather to give an insight on what machinery safety issues are the subject of standardization.
This section should be read in conjunction with the Regulation section.
The countries of the world are working towards global harmonization of standards. This is especially evident in the area of machine safety. Global safety standards for machinery are governed by two organizations: ISO and IEC. Regional and country standards are still in existence and continue to support local requirements but in many countries there has been a move toward using the international standards produced by ISO and IEC.
For example, the EN (European Norm) standards are used throughout the EEA countries. All new EN standards are aligned with, and in most cases have identical text with ISO and IEC standards.
IEC covers electrotechnical issues and ISO covers all other issues. Most industrialized countries are members of IEC and ISO. Machinery safety standards are written by working groups comprised of experts from many of the worlds industrialized counties.
In most countries standards can be regarded as voluntary whereas regulations are legally mandatory. However standards are usually used as the practical interpretation of the regulations. Therefore the worlds of standards and regulations are closely interlinked.
ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
ISO is a non-governmental organization comprised of the national standards bodies of most of the countries of the world (157 countries at the time of this printing). A Central Secretariat, located in Geneva, Switzerland, coordinates the system. ISO generates standards for designing, manufacturing and using machinery more efficiently, safer and cleaner. The standards also make trade between countries easier and fairer.
ISO standards can be identified by the three letters ISO.
The ISO machine standards are organized in the same fashion as the EN standards, three levels: Type A, B and C (see the later section on EN Harmonized European Standards).
For more information, visit the ISO website: http://www.iso.org
IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
The IEC prepares and publishes international standards for electrical, electronic and related technologies. Through its members, the IEC promotes international cooperation on all questions of electrotechnical standardization and related matters, such as the assessment of conformity to electrotechnical standards.
For more information, visit the IEC website: http://www.iec.ch.
EN Harmonized European Standards
These standards are common to all EEA countries and are produced by the European Standardization Organizations CEN and CENELEC. Their use is voluntary but designing and manufacturing equipment to them is the most direct way of demonstrating compliance with the EHSRs of the Machinery Directive.
They are divided into 3 types: A, B and C standards.
Type A. STANDARDS: Cover aspects applicable to all types of machines.
Type B. STANDARDS: Subdivided into 2 groups.
Type B1 STANDARDS: Cover particular safety and ergonomic aspects of machinery.
Type B2 STANDARDS: Cover safety components and protective devices.
Type C. STANDARDS: Cover specific types or groups of machines.
It is important to note that complying with a C Standard gives automatic presumption of conformity with the EHSRs. In the absence of a suitable C Standard, A and B Standards can be used as part or full proof of EHSR conformity by pointing to compliance with relevant sections.
Agreements have been reached for cooperation between CEN/CENELEC and bodies such as ISO and IEC. This should ultimately result in common worldwide standards. In most cases an EN Standard has a counterpart in IEC or ISO. In general the two texts will be the same and any regional differences will be given in the forward of the standard.
This section lists some of the EN, ISO, IEC and other national and regional Standards relevant to machinery safety. Where an EN standard is shown in brackets it is identical or very closely aligned with the ISO or IEC standard. For a complete list of EN Machinery Safety standards go to: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/mechanical/machinery/index_en.htm
ISO and EN Standards (Type A)
EN ISO 12100
Safety of machinery. Basic concepts, general principles for design. Pts 1 & 2
This is an A standard which outlines all the basic principles including risk assessment, guarding, interlocking, emergency stops, trip devices, safety distances, etc. It references to other standards that provide greater levels of detail.
In the near future it is likely that EN ISO 12100 and EN ISO 14121 will be combined into one standard.
EN ISO 14121
Principles for risk assessment.
This principle outlines the fundamentals of assessing the risks during the life of the machinery. It summarizes methods for hazard analysis and risk estimation.
An ISO Technical Report: ISO/TR 14121-2 is also available. It gives practical guidance and examples of methods for risk assessment.
ISO and EN Standards (Type B)
EN ISO 11161
Safety of Integrated Manufacturing Systems—
This standard was published in its revised form in 2007. It was significantly updated making it very useful for contemporary integrated machinery.
EN ISO 13849-1:2008 Safety related parts of control systems—Pt 1: General principles for design
This standard is the result of the significant revision of the old EN 954-1 (which is due for withdrawal at the end of 2011). It introduced many new aspects for Functional Safety of control systems. The term PL (Performance Level) is used to describe the level of integrity of a system or a subsystem.
It is available as an alternative to IEC/EN 62061 (see later). Note that EN ISO 13849-1 covers all technologies of control system whereas IEC/EN 62061 only covers electrical technology.
EN ISO 13849-1 is intended to provide a direct transition path from the categories of the previous EN 954-1. It has a relatively simple methodology compared to IEC/EN 62061 but this is at the expense of some constraints and restrictions. Either the revised ISO/EN 13849-1 or IEC/EN 62061 can be applied to machinery electrical safety related systems and the user should choose whichever one is best suited to their needs but EN ISO 13849-1 is often preferred when transitioning from Categories.
Note: Recent to the time of publication of this text, CEN (European Committee for Standardization) announced that the final date for presumption of conformity of EN 954-1 will be extended to the end of 2011 to facilitate transition to the later standards. This replaces the original date of December 29, 2009.
For the latest information on the use and status of EN 954-1 visit: http://discover.rockwellautomation.com/EN_Safety_Solutions.aspx. In the meantime it is advised that the extension of the transition period is used to move over to the use of the later standards (EN ISO 13849-1 or IEC/EN 62061) in a timely manner.
EN ISO 13849-2
Safety related parts of control systems—Pt 2: Validation
This standard provides details for validation of safety related parts of control systems. It has annexes that give details safety components, principles and fault exclusion.
EN ISO 13850
Emergency Stop devices, functional aspects—Principles for design.
Provides design principles and requirements.
ISO 13851 (EN 574)
Two-hand control devices—Functional aspects—Principles for design.
Provides requirements and guidance on the design and selection of two-hand control devices, including the prevention of defeat and the avoidance of faults.
EN ISO 13857
Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper and lower limbs.
Provides data for calculation of safe aperture sizes and positioning for guards, etc.
ISO 13854 (EN 349)
Minimum distances to avoid crushing parts of the human body.
Provides data for calculation of safe gaps between moving parts, etc.
ISO 13855 (EN 999)
The positioning of protective equipment in respect to approach speeds of parts of the human body.
Provides methods for designers to calculate the minimum safety distances from a hazard for specific safety devices, in particular for electrosensitive devices (e.g., light curtains), pressure sensitive mats/floors and two-hand controls. It contains a principle for the positioning of safety devices based on approach speed and machine stopping time that can reasonably be extrapolated to cover interlocked guard doors without guard locking.
ISO 13856-1 (EN 1760-1)
Pressure Sensitive Safety Devices—Pt 1: Mats & Floors.
Provides requirements and test procedures.
ISO 13856-2 (EN 1760-2)
Pressure Sensitive Safety Devices—Pt 2: Edges & Bars.
Provides requirements and test procedures
ISO 14118 (EN 1037)
Prevention of unexpected start-up—Isolation and energy dissipation
Defines measures aimed at isolating machines from power supplies and dissipating stored energy to prevent unexpected machine startup and allow safe intervention with machinery.
ISO 14119 (EN 1088)
Interlocking devices associated with guards—Principles for design and selection.
Provides principles for the design and selection of interlocking devices associated with guards.
In order to verify mechanical switches it refers to IEC 60947-5-1— Low voltage switch gear—Pt 5: Control circuit devices and switching elements—Section 1: Electromechanical control circuit devices.
In order to verify non-mechanical switches it refers to IEC 60947-5-3—Particular requirements for proximity devices with defined behavior under fault conditions.
ISO 14120 (EN 953)
General Requirements for the Design and Construction of Guards.
Provides definitions, descriptions and design requirements for fixed and movable guards.
ISO and EN Standards (Type C)
There is a large range of Type C Standards that cover specific types of machinery. For example:
EN ISO 10218-1
Safety of packaging machines. Palletizers and depalletizers.
IEC and EN Standards
Electrical equipment of machines—Pt 1 General requirements.
This is a very important standard that outlines recommendations for safety related aspects of wiring and electrical equipment on machines. A significantly revised version was published in 2006. This revision removed the former preference for electromechanical safety circuits.
Functional safety of electrical, electronic and programmable electronic safety-related systems.
This standard is important because it contains the requirements and provisions that are necessary for the design of complex electronic and programmable systems and subsystems. The standard is generic so it is not restricted to the machinery sector. It is a lengthy and complex document comprising seven parts. Within the machinery sector, its use is mostly for the design of complex devices such as safety PLCs. For system level design and integration aspects for machinery the sector specific standards such as IEC/EN 62061 or EN ISO 13849-1 are probably the most suitable. IEC 61508 has mapped out the approach for a new generation of sector and product specific standards that is now emerging. It introduced the term SIL (safety integrity level) and gives a hierarchy of 4 SILs which are applied to a safety function. SIL 1 is the lowest and SIL 4 is the highest. SIL 4 is not usually applicable to the machinery sector because it is intended to be related to very high risk levels more associated with sectors such as petrochemical or nuclear.
IEC 62061 (EN 62061)
Functional safety of safety related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems.
This standard is one of the new generations of standards that use the term SIL (safety integrity level). It is the machinery specific implementation of IEC/EN 61508. It specifies requirements and makes recommendations for the design, integration and validation of electrical safety related control systems for machines. This standard provides an alternative approach to EN ISO 13849-1 and is intended to be useful for the increasingly complex safety functionality required for todays current and future machinery For less complex safety functionality EN ISO 13849-1 may be easier to implement. The use of these standards requires the availability of data such as PFHD (probability of dangerous failure per hour) or MTTFd (mean time to dangerous failure).
IEC 61496 (EN 61496)
Electro-sensitive protective equipment Pt 1: General requirements and tests.
General requirements and tests.
Pt 2: Particular requirements for equipment using active optoelectronic protective devices.
Part 1 gives requirements and test procedures for the control and monitoring aspects for electrosensitive protective equipment. Subsequent parts deal with aspects particular to the sensing side of the system. Part 2 gives particular requirements for safety light curtains.
IEC 61800-5-2 (EN 61800-5-2)
Functional safety of power drive systems.
This standard deals with drives that have safety functionality.
Where possible, OSHA promulgates national consensus standards or established Federal standards as safety standards. The mandatory provisions (e.g., the word shall implies mandatory) of the standards, incorporated by reference, have the same force and effects as the standards listed in Part 1910. For example, the national consensus standard NFPA 70 is listed as a reference document in Appendix A of Subpart S-Electrical of Part 1910 of 29 CFR. NFPA 70 is a voluntary standard, which was developed by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). NFPA 70 is also known as the National Electric Code (NEC). By incorporation, all the mandatory requirements in the NEC are mandatory by OSHA.
The following is a list of some of the OSHA standards relevant to machinery safety,
|1910 Subpart O||Machinery and Machine Guarding|
|1910.212||General requirements for all machines|
|1910.213||Woodworking machinery requirements|
|1910.215||Abrasive wheel machinery|
|1910.216||Mills and calendars in the rubber and plastics industries|
|1910.217||Mechanical power presses|
|1910.217 App A||Mandatory requirements for certification/validation of safety systems for presence sensing device initiation of mechanical power presses|
|1910.217 App B||Nonmandatory guidelines for certification/validation of safety systems for presence sensing device initiation of mechanical power presses|
|1910.217 App C||Mandatory requirements for OSHA recognition of third-party validation organizations for the PSDI standard|
|1910.217 App D||Nonmandatory supplementary information|
|1910 Subpart R||Special Industries|
|1910.261||Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills|
|1910.264||Laundry machinery and operations|
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) serves as the administrator and coordinator of the United States private sector voluntary standardization system. It is a private, nonprofit, membership organization supported by a diverse constituency of private and public sector organizations.
ANSI, itself, does not develop standards; it facilitates the development of standards by establishing consensus among qualified groups. ANSI also ensures that the guiding principles of consensus, due process and openness are followed by the qualified groups. Below is a partial list of industrial safety standards that can be obtained by contacting ANSI.
These standards are categorized as either application standards or construction standards. Application standards define how to apply a safeguarding to machinery. Examples include ANSI B11.1, which provides information on the use of machine guarding on power presses, and ANSI/RIA R15.06, which outlines safeguarding use for robot guarding.
National Fire Protection Association
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) was organized in 1896. Its mission is to reduce the burden of fire on the quality of life by advocating scientifically based consensus codes and standards, research and education for fire and related safety issues. The NFPA sponsors many standards to help accomplish its mission. Two very important standards related to industrial safety and safe-guarding are the National Electric Code (NEC) and Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery.
The National Fire Protection Association has acted as sponsor of the NEC since 1911. The original code document was developed in 1897 as a result of the united efforts of various insurance, electrical, architectural, and allied interests. The NEC has since been updated numerous times; it is revised about every three years. Article 670 of the NEC covers some details on industrial machinery and refers the reader to the Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery, NFPA 79.
NFPA 79 applies to electrical/electronic equipment, apparatus, or systems of industrial machines operating from a nominal voltage of 600 volts or less. The purpose of NFPA 79 is to provide detailed information for the application of electrical/electronic equipment, apparatus, or systems supplied as part of industrial machines that will promote safety to life and property. NFPA 79, which was officially adopted by ANSI in 1962, is very similar in content to the standard IEC 60204-1.
Machines, which are not covered by specific OSHA standards, are required to be free of recognized hazards which may cause death or serious injuries. These machines must be designed and maintained to meet or exceed the requirements of applicable industry standards. NFPA 79 is a standard that would apply to machines not specifically covered by OSHA standards.
US National Electrical Code
Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces
Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery
Association for Manufacturing Technology
Machine Tools - Mechanical Power Presses - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
Machine Tools - Hydraulic Power Presses, Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
Power Press Brakes, Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use
Machine Tools - Shears - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
Machine Tools - Iron Workers - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
Lathes, Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use
Machine Tools - Cold Headers and Cold Formers, Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
Drilling, Milling, and Boring Machines, Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use
Grinding Machines, Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use
Metal Sawing Machines, Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
Gear Cutting Machines, Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use
Machine Tools - Roll-Forming and Roll-Bending Machines - Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use
Machine Tools - Single- and Multiple-Spindle Automatic Bar and Chucking Machines - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care and Use
Machine Tools - Coil-Slitting Machines Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use Withdrawn and rolled into B11.18
Pipe, Tube, and Shape Bending Machines, Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
Metal Powder Compacting Presses, Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
Machine Tools - Horizontal Hydraulic Extrusion Presses - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
Machine Tools - Machines and Machinery Systems for Processing Strip, Sheet, or Plate from Coiled Configuration - Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
Machine Tools - Safeguarding When Referenced by Other B11 Machine Tool Safety Standards-Performance Criteria for the Design, Construction, Care and Operation
Machine Tools - Manufacturing Systems/Cells Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
Machine Tools - Machine Tools Using Lasers for Processing Materials - Safety Requirements for Design, Construction, Care, and Use
Risk assessment and risk reduction A guide to estimate, evaluate and reduce risks associated with machine tools
This technical report covers the application of programmable controllers to safety applications.
This technical report, currently in development, will provide circuit examples of safety functions to accommodate various levels of risk Reduction.
ANSI ISO 12100
Safety of machinery. Basic concepts, general principles for design. Pts -1 and -2
The standard ISO 12100 has been adopted in the US by AMT as an identical ANSI standard. ISO 12100 is a globally applicable top level basic principles standard that forms the framework for most of the ISO, IEC and EN machinery safety standards. It provides a risk assessment approach as opposed to a prescriptive and restrictive approach. The aim is to avoid cost and trade barrier problems caused by a multiplicity of different national standards covering the same subject in different ways.
Robot Industries Association
ANSI RIA R15.06
Safety Requirements for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems
ANSI RIA R15.06
Safety Requirements for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems
Packaging Machinery Manufacturers Institute
ANSI PMMI B155.1
Safety Requirements for Packaging Machinery and Packaging-Related Converting Machinery
The packaging standard was recently revised to incorporate risk assessment and risk reduction.
American Society of Safety Engineers
Control of Hazardous Energy, Lockout/Tag out and Alternative Methods
This standard is similar to OSHA 1910.147. It provides a method (risk assessment) to determine the appropriate alternative method when energy cannot be locked out.
Society of Plastics Industry
Horizontal Injection Molding Machines Safety Requirements for Manufacture, Care and Use
Extrusion Blow Molding Machines Safety Requirements
Injection Blow Molding Machines - Safety Requirements
Plastics Machinery - Dynamic Reaction - Injection Molding Machines - Safety Requirements for the Manufacture, Care and Use
Plastics Machinery - Robots used with Horizontal Injection Molding Machines - Safety Requirements for the Integration, Care and Use
Plastics Machinery - Machines to Cut, Slit, of Buff Plastic Foams - Safety Requirements for the Manufacture, Care and Use
CSA Standards reflect a national consensus of producers and users including manufactures, consumers, retailers, unions and professional organizations, and government agencies. The standards are used widely by industry and commerce and often adopted by municipal, provincial, and federal governments in their regulations, particularly in the fields of health, safety, building and construction, and the environment.
Individuals, companies, and associations across Canada indicate their support for CSAs standards development by volunteering their time and skills to CSA Committee work and supporting the Associations objectives through sustaining memberships. The more than 7000 committee volunteers and the 2000 sustaining memberships together form CSAs total membership.
The Standards Council of Canada is the coordinating body of the National Standards system, a federation of independent, autonomous organizations working towards the further development and improvement of voluntary standardization in the national interest.
Safeguarding of Machinery
Industrial Robots and Robot Systems - General Safety Requirements
Control of hazardous energy Lockout and other methods
Code for Power Press Operation: Health, Safety, and Guarding Requirements
Most of these standards are closely aligned with the equivalent ISO/IEC/EN standards
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|Safeguarding of machinery. Part 1: General principles|
|AS 4024.1101-2006||Terminology General|
|AS 4024.1201-2006||Basic terminology and methodology|
|AS 4024.1202-2006||Technical principles|
|AS 4024.1301-2006||Principles of risk assessment|
|AS 4024.1302-2006||Reduction of risks to health and safety from hazardous substances emitted by machinery|
|AS 4024.1401-2006||Design principles Terminology and general principles|
|AS 4024.1501-2006||Design of safety related parts of control systems General principles|
|AS 4024.1502-2006||Design of safety related parts of control systems Validation|
|AS 4024.1601-2006||General requirements for the design and construction of fixed and movable guards|
|AS 4024.1602-2006||Principles for the design and selection of interlocks|
|AS 4024.1603-2006||Prevention of unexpected start up|
|AS 4024.1604-2006||Emergency stop Principles for design|
|AS 4024.1701-2006||Basic human body measurements for technological design|
|AS 4024.1702-2006||Principles for determining the dimensions required for openings for whole body access to machinery|
|AS 4024.1703-2006||Principles for determining the dimensions required for access openings|
|AS 4024.1704-2006||Anthropometric data|
|AS 4024.1801-2006||Safety distances Upper limbs|
|AS 4024.1802-2006||Safety distances Lower limbs|
|AS 4024.1803-2006||Minimum gaps to prevent crushing of parts of the human body|
|AS 4024.1901-2006||General principles for human interaction with displays and control actuators|
|AS 4024.1903-2006||Control actuators|
|AS 4024.1904-2006||Requirements for visual, auditory and tactile signs|
|AS 4024.1905-2006||Requirements for marking|
|AS 4024.1906-2006||Requirements for the location and operation of actuators|
|AS 4024.1907-2006||System of auditory and visual danger and information signals|
Safeguarding of machinery. Part 2: Installation and commissioning requirements for electro-sensitive systems—Optoelectronic devices
The basis of this standard is IEC 61496-1 and -2. Part 2 covers the installation and commissioning of light curtains specifically related to machinery safety.
Safeguarding of machinery. Part 3: Manufacturing and testing requirements for electro-sensitive systems— Optoelectronic devices
The basis of this standard is IEC 61496-1 and -2. Part 3 covers the manufacturing and testing of light curtains specifically related to machinery safety.
Safeguarding of machinery. Part 4: Installation and commissioning requirements for electro-sensitive systems—Pressure-sensitive devices
The basis of this standard is EN 1760-1 and EN 1760-2. Part 4 covers the installation and commissioning of mats, floors, edges and bars that are used with machinery, regardless of the energy used.
Safeguarding of machinery. Part 5: Manufacturing and testing requirements for electro-sensitive systems— Pressure-sensitive devices
The basis of this standard is EN1760-1 and EN1760-2. Part 5 covers the manufacturing and testing mats, floors, edges and bars that are used with machinery, regardless of the energy used.